TRIS and CTE Standards

TRIS was created by Chico State business professor, Dr. Curt DeBerg. The course can be a self-standing, one semester course. Or it can be offered once or twice a week for a semester, as part of any CTE course that wants to integrate entrepreneurship concepts and skills. Dr. DeBerg offers a one-day training session to educators who are interested in teaching entrepreneurship. Dr. DeBerg believes that most entrepreneurship programs offered in the traditional instructional program will be moot UNLESS teachers are properly identified and trained.

Note, from below, please note how the course maps on the Entrepreneurship/Self-Employment Pathway within the Marketing, Sales, and Services Standards of the California Career and Technical Education (CTE) standards.


Marketing, Sales, and Services

Pathway Standards

  1. Entrepreneurship/Self-Employment Pathway

Develop knowledge and skills common to entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, including the human characteristics vital for entrepreneurial thinking in a twenty-first century global world. Entrepreneurial thinking may be applied to all industry sectors. The performance indicators provide business knowledge and skills required for entrepreneurs, as well as intangible skills and knowledge such as creativity and innovation skills.


Sample occupations associated with this pathway:

  • Business Owner
  • Consultant
  • Insurance Broker
  • Meeting/Event Planner
  • Travel Agent


C1.0    Define the role the entrepreneur plays in the free-enterprise system.

C1.1    Understand the role and importance of entrepreneurship and small business in the economy.

C1.2    Understand the part government plays in the free-enterprise system and its impact on small businesses.

C1.3    Know how scarcity and allocation affect small businesses.

C1.4    Demonstrate the relationship between supply and demand and pricing and production.

C1.5    Evaluate the importance of economic measurements and the factors used to calculate it.

C1.6    Explore the impact of cultural and social environments on global trade.

C2.0    Analyze the development of successful personal entrepreneurial traits.

C2.1    Define and identify the following entrepreneurial characteristics: adaptability, competitiveness, confidence, discipline, perseverance, vision and risk taking.

C2.2    Analyze strengths and weaknesses of self in terms of entrepreneurial success.

C2.3    Deconstruct the reasons for success of key entrepreneurs.

C2.4    Explore the rationale of why, historically, the United States and California have been leaders in innovation and small business ventures.

C3.0    Understand the basic aspects of entrepreneurship.

C3.1    Know the risk management principles associated with small business ownership.

C3.2    Compare the different types of business ownership and the advantages and disadvantages of owning and managing a small business.

C3.3    Understand differentiation and creating a unique product/service.

C3.4    Examine current trends that provide both domestic and global opportunities for entrepreneurs.

C3.5    Identify and analyze ethical and social responsibilities of a successful small business.

C3.6    Analyze a proposed business situation and its potential market.

C3.7    Compare and contrast starting a new business versus buying an existing business.

C4.0    Develop creative and innovative thinking skills that apply to entrepreneurship and the products/services created.

C4.1    Define terms to develop the creative process such as originality, flexibility, brain storming, modification, associative and metaphorical thinking.

C4.2    Develop creative thinking in order to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence.

C4.3    Defend why failure is an opportunity to learn and to understand that creativity and innovation is a long term and cyclical process of successes and mistakes.

C4.4    Explore recognized creative-minded individuals and their products and services.

C4.5    Defend why competitiveness depends on innovation.

C4.6    Create and design potential innovative twenty-first-century products and services.

C5.0    Evaluate leadership styles and management functions for the small business.

C5.1    Describe how cultural/ethnic/generational differences affect interpersonal interactions/communications within a business structure.

C5.2    Define the four management functions: planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling.

C5.3    Compare and contrast leadership styles and characteristics.

C5.4    Distinguish the roles of support staff, supervisors, and managers in achieving financial goals.

C6.0    Demonstrate an understanding of the elements and purpose of business and strategic planning in entrepreneurship.

C6.1    Identify and explain the components of a business plan.

C6.2    Define terms necessary for creating a business plan such as return on investment, target markets, and demographics.

C6.3    Conduct market research by using a variety of methods.

C6.4    Compare and contrast sample business plans, identifying strengths and weaknesses.

C6.5    Synthesize all elements into an original business plan.

C7.0    Identify strategies for business startup and growth.

C7.1    Identify mission and purpose.

C7.2    Identify factors for business expansion.

C7.3    Develop core values.

C7.4    Develop a vision statement.

C7.5    Evaluate advantages and disadvantages of business locations.

C7.6    Assess barriers to startup.

C7.7    Create an exit strategy.

C8.0    Understand financial planning, reports, and projections.

C8.1    Identify startup costs.

C8.2    Understand the relationship between supply and demand and pricing and production.

C8.3    Research sources of capital.

C8.4    Formulate pricing strategies for goods and services for a small business.

C8.5    Project annual and monthly business income and expenses.

C8.6    Calculate financial projection sales, income, expenses, and taxes.

C8.7    Construct a financial plan.

C9.0    Understand effective marketing of a small business.

C9.1    Identify target markets, competition, and customer profiles.

C9.2    Know the components of a promotional plan (e.g., advertising, public relations, sales promotion and how the plan is used to achieve a stated outcome.

C9.3    Identify the selling techniques used to aid customers and clients in making buying decisions.

C9.4    Understand how products and services are conceived, developed, maintained and improved.

C9.5    Use market research to develop strategies for marketing products or services in a small business.

C9.6    Create an effective marketing plan including current social media, viral marketing, and other technologies.

C10.0 Identify and evaluate technology used by entrepreneurs.

C10.1 Examine the effect of technology in a small business for a multichannel approach.

C10.2 Explore technology related to global commerce—cultural differences, foreign currencies, and logistics.

C11.0 Understand the role of human resources in a successful small business.

C11.1 Identify the role of human resources in selection, training, and evaluation of employees.

C11.2 Identify government regulations (federal, state, and local) that affect small business.

C11.3 Recognize various types of taxes that affect a small business.

C11.4 Understand policies and laws regarding harassment, nondiscrimination, and safety.

C11.5 Develop job descriptions.

C11.6 Plan compensation and benefit options.